Herbs, Spices: Culinary Uses and Terpene Profile

  • Allspice
    • Major Terpenes: eugenol, eucalyptol, caryophyllene
    • Culinary Uses: Caribbean dishes, soups, stews, curries, jams, mulled wine, desserts, sausages, marinades, rubs, ice cream
  • Basil
    • Major Terpenes: linalool, eugenol, limonene, camphor, eucalyptol, camphene, terpineol, geraniol  
    • Culinary Uses: tomato based dishes, spinach, squash, soup, dips, tea, Italian dishes, pizza
  • Bay
    • Major Terpenes: eucalyptol, a-pinene, b-pinene, eugenol, myrcene, linalool, limonene, sabinene, eucalyptol
    • Culinary Uses: soups, stews, sauces, stocks, marinades, stuffing, pickles, fish, lamb. Poached fruit, custards, rice pilaf
      • Oils and flavor releases better in dishes that need to be simmered for a while.
  • Black pepper
    • Major Terpenes: b-caryophyllene, limonene, sabinene, a&b-pinene
    • Culinary Uses: meats, seafood, veggies, baked goods, beverages, tea, pretty much anything
    • Calendula
      • Major Terpenes: a-humulene, b-caryophyllene, limonene, ocimene
      • Culinary Uses: salads, soups, baked goods, tea, grains
    • Cardamom
      • Major Terpenes: eucalyptol, linalool, limonene, sabinene, a-pinene, b-myrcene, a-terpineol, nerolidol
      • Culinary Uses: Indian and Middle Eastern recipes, meat, vegetables, baked goods, coffee and other beverages, tea, ice cream and sweets
    • Celery Seed
      • Major Terpenes: limonene, b-pinene, b-myrcene
      • Culinary Uses: soups, stocks, shellfish boils, salad dressing, pickling, brining, baked goods, bloody mary’s, egg dishes, seafood, poultry, meat
    • Chamomile
      • Major Terpenes: bisabolol, pinene, nerolidol, eucalyptol
      • Culinary Uses: tea, desserts, candies, add to chicken or veggie broth
    • Chives
      • Major Terpenes:
      • Culinary Uses: always add at the last possible moment in cooking, potato dishes, salads, salad dressing, egg dishes, cream cheese dips, sauces, soups, sausages, top meat and veggie dishes
    • Cinnamon
      • Major Terpenes: eucalyptol, linalool, caryophyllene, eugenol, pinene
      • Culinary Uses: desserts, tea, coffee, Middle Eastern, Chinese, Greek, Mexican, Scandinavian and Asian dishes, breakfast dishes
    • Clove
      • Major Terpenes: caryophyllene, eugenol
      • Culinary Uses: sauces, seasoning blends, liqueurs, curry dishes, desserts, soups, syrups, jams, baking, tea, pork dishes
    • Coriander
      • Major Terpenes: linalool, borneol, geraniol, a-pinene, camphor, g-terpinene, limonene,
      • Culinary Uses: salads, fruit, sausages, meats, baked goods, cheese, pickles, sauces, soups, fish, veggies, chutneys, curries, marinades
    • Dill
      • Major Terpenes: a&b-phellandrene, pinene, limonene, terpinene
      • Culinary Uses: pickling cucumbers, use the seeds for flavoring pastries or sauces, soups, rice, rabbit, Scandinavian food, salmon, salad, stews, grains, baked goods, cheese, tea
    • Fennel
      • Major Terpenes: fenchol, linalool, a-pinene, limonene, phellandrene
      • Culinary Uses: salad, pudding, bread, heavy fatty meats, sauce, tea
    • Garlic
      • Major Terpenes: geraniol, linalool, phellandrene
      • Culinary Uses: sauces, meat, poultry, seafood, veggies, baked goods
    • Ginger
      • Major Terpenes: phellandrene, eucalyptol, linalool, camphene, borneol
      • Culinary Uses: baked goods, marinades, tea, sauces, fruit, candy
    • Juniper berries
      • Major Terpenes: a-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, camphor, limonene, terpinene, cymene, camphene
      • Culinary Uses: game meats, wine marinades, pates, sauces, pickled meats, fruit dishes, tea
    • Lavender
      • Major Terpenes: eucalyptol, linalool, terpineol, ocimene, terpinene, caryophyllene
      • Culinary uses: teas, desserts, candies, butter
    • Lemon balm
      • Major Terpenes: geraniol, b-caryophyllene, nerolidol, linalool, limonene
      • Culinary Uses: tea, beverages, salads, sauces, desserts
    • Lemongrass
      • Major Terpenes: geranial, b-caryophyllene, linalool, limonene, geraniol, geranyl acetate
      • Culinary Uses: Thai, Malaysian, Indian and Indonesian dishes, curries, soups, stews, casseroles, chicken, seafood, tea
    • Marjoram
      • Major Terpenes: sabinene, terpinene, linalool, a-terpineol
      • Culinary Uses: stuffing, salads, pasta sauce, bread, chicken
    • Nettle
      • Major Terpenes: limonene, a&b pinene, y-terpinene, linalool, geraniol, camphor, eucalyptol, a-terpineol, eugenol
      • Culinary Uses: tea, beer making, soups, as a veggie, use as a salt substitute when dried, juice blends and smoothies, grains, egg dishes, Mediterranean dishes
    • Oregano
      • Major Terpenes: g-terpinene, p-cymene, b-caryophyllene, myrcene, pinene, linalool, borneol, geranyl acetate
      • Culinary Uses: Greek and Italian dishes, tea, pasta, egg dishes, salads, meats, veggies
    • Parsley
      • Major Terpenes: phellandrene, myrcene
      • Culinary Uses: salads, garnish, eggs, grains, soups, sauces (add it at the end of cooking), tea
    • Peppermint
      • Major Terpenes: menthol, pulegone, eucalyptol, pinene
      • Culinary Uses: beverages, tea, salads, soups, seafood, poultry, meats, game, veggies, dips, sauces, jelly, candy, baked goods
    • Rose
      • Major Terpenes: geraniol, a&b-pinene, myrcene, limonene, linalool, sabinene, terpinene
      • Culinary Uses: baked goods, fruit, yogurt, beverages, syrup, tea
    • Rosemary
      • Major Terpenes: eucalyptol, a&b-pinene, camphor, camphene, borneol, limonene, terpineol, myrcene, linalool
      • Culinary Uses: poultry, seafood (better for fatty fish like salmon), game, meat, veggies, soup, marinades, salad dressing, sauces, baked goods, tea
    • Sage
      • Major Terpenes: a-pinene, camphor, a-humulene, camphene
      • Culinary Uses: tea, egg dishes, pesto, tomato dishes, soup, fish
      • Savory
        • Major Terpenes: b-pinene, b-phellandrene, limonene, borneol
        • Culinary Uses: salt replacement, fatty meats, soup, salads, egg, poultry and meat dishes
      • Star Anise
        • Major Terpenes: a-pinene, limonene, linalool, a-phellandrene, b-caryophyllene, a-terpineol, nerolidol
        • Culinary Uses: Vietnamese, Indian, Malaysian and Chinese dishes, beverages, duck, egg dishes, game, pork, poultry, seafood, pastries, tea
        • Tarragon
          • Major Terpenes: b-ocimene, limonene, phellandrene, pinene, myrcene
          • Culinary Uses: seafood, poultry, fish, egg dishes, sauces, soups, veggies, salad dressing, tea
        • Thyme
          • Major Terpenes: p-cymene, g-terpinene, linalool, pinene, camphene, borneol, geraniol
          • Culinary Uses: egg dishes, cheese dishes, veggies, soups, stews, poultry, beef, game, veggies, tea
        • Turmeric
          • Major Terpenes: phellandrene, borneol, sabinene, phellandrene
          • Culinary Uses: tea, curry, baked goods, tea
        • Valerian
          • Major Terpenes: a&b-pinene, caryophyllene, borneol
          • Culinary Uses: tea
           Lawless, J. (1995). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils. Great Britain: Thorsons.
           McGee, H. (2004). On Food And Cooking: The Science And Lore Of The Kitchen. New York, New York: Scribner.
           Harding, J. (2006). The Herb Bible. New York, New York: Sterling Publishing.
           Essential Oils Desk Reference Third Edition. (2006). USA: Essential Science Publishing.

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