Terpenes in Herbs, Spices and Other Ingredients

  1. Allspice
    1. Major Terpenes: eugenol, eucalyptol, caryophyllene
    2. Culinary Uses: Caribbean dishes, soups, stews, curries, jams, mulled wine, desserts, sausages, marinades, rubs, ice cream
  2. Star Anise
    1. Major Terpenes: a-pinene, limonene, linalool, a-phellandrene, b-caryophyllene, a-terpineol, nerolidol
    2. Culinary Uses: Vietnamese, Indian, Malaysian and Chinese dishes, beverages, duck, egg dishes, game, pork, poultry, seafood, pastries, tea
  3. Basil
    1. Major Terpenes: linalool, eugenol, limonene, camphor, eucalyptol, camphene, terpineol, geraniol  
    2. Culinary Uses: tomato based dishes, spinach, squash, soup, dips, tea, Italian dishes, pizza
  4. Bay
    1. Major Terpenes: eucalyptol, a-pinene, b-pinene, eugenol, myrcene, linalool, limonene, sabinene, eucalyptol
    2. Culinary Uses: soups, stews, sauces, stocks, marinades, stuffing, pickles, fish, lamb. Poached fruit, custards, rice pilaf

*Oils and flavor releases better in dishes that need to be simmered for a while.

  1. Calendula
    1. Major Terpenes: a-humulene, b-caryophyllene, limonene, ocimene
    2. Culinary Uses: salads, soups, baked goods, tea, grains
  2. Cardamom
    1. Major Terpenes: eucalyptol, linalool, limonene, sabinene, a-pinene, b-myrcene, a-terpineol, nerolidol
    2. Culinary Uses: Indian and Middle Eastern recipes, meat, vegetables, baked goods, coffee and other beverages, tea, ice cream and sweets
  3. Celery Seed
    1. Major Terpenes: limonene, b-pinene, b-myrcene
    2. Culinary Uses: soups, stocks, shellfish boils, salad dressing, pickling, brining, baked goods, bloody mary’s, egg dishes, seafood, poultry, meat
  4. Chamomile
    1. Major Terpenes: bisabolol, pinene, nerolidol, eucalyptol
    2. Culinary Uses: tea, desserts, candies, add to chicken or veggie broth
  5. Chives
    1. Major Terpenes:
    2. Culinary Uses: always add at the last possible moment in cooking, potato dishes, salads, salad dressing, egg dishes, cream cheese dips, sauces, soups, sausages, top meat and veggie dishes
  6. Cinnamon
    1. Major Terpenes: eucalyptol, linalool, caryophyllene, eugenol, pinene
    2. Culinary Uses: desserts, tea, coffee, Middle Eastern, Chinese, Greek, Mexican, Scandinavian and Asian dishes, breakfast dishes
  7. Sage
    1. Major Terpenes: a-pinene, camphor, a-humulene, camphene
    2. Culinary Uses: tea, egg dishes, pesto, tomato dishes, soup, fish
  8. Clove
    1. Major Terpenes: caryophyllene, eugenol
    2. Culinary Uses: sauces, seasoning blends, liqueurs, curry dishes, desserts, soups, syrups, jams, baking, tea, pork dishes
  9. Coriander
    1. Major Terpenes: linalool, borneol, geraniol, a-pinene, camphor, g-terpinene, limonene,
    2. Culinary Uses: salads, fruit, sausages, meats, baked goods, cheese, pickles, sauces, soups, fish, veggies, chutneys, curries, marinades
  10. Dill
    1. Major Terpenes: a&b-phellandrene, pinene, limonene, terpinene
    2. Culinary Uses: pickling cucumbers, use the seeds for flavoring pastries or sauces, soups, rice, rabbit, Scandinavian food, salmon, salad, stews, grains, baked goods, cheese, tea
  11. Fennel
    1. Major Terpenes: fenchol, linalool, a-pinene, limonene, phellandrene
    2. Culinary Uses: salad, pudding, bread, heavy fatty meats, sauce, tea
  12. Garlic
    1. Major Terpenes: geraniol, linalool, phellandrene
    2. Culinary Uses: sauces, meat, poultry, seafood, veggies, baked goods
  13. Ginger
    1. Major Terpenes: phellandrene, eucalyptol, linalool, camphene, borneol
    2. Culinary Uses: baked goods, marinades, tea, sauces, fruit, candy
  14. Juniper berries
    1. Major Terpenes: a-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, camphor, limonene, terpinene, cymene, camphene
    2. Culinary Uses: game meats, wine marinades, pates, sauces, pickled meats, fruit dishes, tea
  15. Lavender
    1. Major Terpenes: eucalyptol, linalool, terpineol, ocimene, terpinene, caryophyllene
    2. Culinary uses: teas, desserts, candies, butter
  16. Lemon balm
    1. Major Terpenes: geraniol, b-caryophyllene, nerolidol, linalool, limonene
    2. Culinary Uses: tea, beverages, salads, sauces, desserts
  17. Lemongrass
    1. Major Terpenes: geranial, b-caryophyllene, linalool, limonene, geraniol, geranyl acetate
    2. Culinary Uses: Thai, Malaysian, Indian and Indonesian dishes, curries, soups, stews, casseroles, chicken, seafood, tea
  18. Marjoram
    1. Major Terpenes: sabinene, terpinene, linalool, a-terpineol
    2. Culinary Uses: stuffing, salads, pasta sauce, bread, chicken
  19. Nettle
    1. Major Terpenes: limonene, a&b pinene, y-terpinene, linalool, geraniol, camphor, eucalyptol, a-terpineol, eugenol
    2. Culinary Uses: tea, beer making, soups, as a veggie, use as a salt substitute when dried, juice blends and smoothies, grains, egg dishes, Mediterranean dishes
  20. Oregano
    1. Major Terpenes: g-terpinene, p-cymene, b-caryophyllene, myrcene, pinene, linalool, borneol, geranyl acetate
    2. Culinary Uses: Greek and Italian dishes, tea, pasta, egg dishes, salads, meats, veggies
  21. Parsley
    1. Major Terpenes: phellandrene, myrcene
    2. Culinary Uses: salads, garnish, eggs, grains, soups, sauces (add it at the end of cooking), tea
  22. Black pepper
    1. Major Terpenes: b-caryophyllene, limonene, sabinene, a&b-pinene
    2. Culinary Uses: meats, seafood, veggies, baked goods, beverages, tea, pretty much anything
  23. Peppermint
    1. Major Terpenes: menthol, pulegone, eucalyptol, pinene
    2. Culinary Uses: beverages, tea, salads, soups, seafood, poultry, meats, game, veggies, dips, sauces, jelly, candy, baked goods
  24. Rose
    1. Major Terpenes: geraniol, a&b-pinene, myrcene, limonene, linalool, sabinene, terpinene
    2. Culinary Uses: baked goods, fruit, yogurt, beverages, syrup, tea
  25. Rosemary
    1. Major Terpenes: eucalyptol, a&b-pinene, camphor, camphene, borneol, limonene, terpineol, myrcene, linalool
    2. Culinary Uses: poultry, seafood (better for fatty fish like salmon), game, meat, veggies, soup, marinades, salad dressing, sauces, baked goods, tea
  26. Savory
    1. Major Terpenes: b-pinene, b-phellandrene, limonene, borneol
    2. Culinary Uses: salt replacement, fatty meats, soup, salads, egg, poultry and meat dishes
  27. Tarragon
    1. Major Terpenes: b-ocimene, limonene, phellandrene, pinene, myrcene
    2. Culinary Uses: seafood, poultry, fish, egg dishes, sauces, soups, veggies, salad dressing, tea
  28. Thyme
    1. Major Terpenes: p-cymene, g-terpinene, linalool, pinene, camphene, borneol, geraniol
    2. Culinary Uses: egg dishes, cheese dishes, veggies, soups, stews, poultry, beef, game, veggies, tea
  29. Turmeric
    1. Major Terpenes: phellandrene, borneol, sabinene, phellandrene
    2. Culinary Uses: tea, curry, baked goods, tea
  30. Valerian
    1. Major Terpenes: a&b-pinene, caryophyllene, borneol
    2. Culinary Uses: tea

THESE STATEMENTS HAVE NOT BEEN EVALUATED BY THE FDA AND ARE NOT INTENDED TO DIAGNOSE, TREAT OR CURE ANY DISEASE.

PLEASE BE ADVISED: WHEN ADDING THERAPEUTIC AMOUNTS OF HERBS PLEASE CONSULT YOUR DOCTOR OR NATUROPATH TO SEE IF THESE HERBS WILL BE A GOOD ADDITION TO YOUR REGIMEN AND ARE NOT CONTRAINDICATED WITH YOUR MEDICATION.

 References

   Lawless, J. (1995). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils. Great Britain: Thorsons.

   McGee, H. (2004). On Food And Cooking: The Science And Lore Of The Kitchen. New York, New York: Scribner.

   Harding, J. (2006). The Herb Bible. New York, New York: Sterling Publishing.

   Essential Oils Desk Reference Third Edition. (2006). USA: Essential Science Publishing.

  

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